The characteristics of the trial are several and each author defines them differently. However, we can highlight the argumentative nature of the essays. Likewise, these texts have a well-planned structure that gives them unity. In addition, in each of the parts of an essay we will notice a correct use of logic. Whether you start from the general to the particular or vice versa. Another feature that provides identity to an essay is the use of the language. Mostly, a formal tone is used and the use of rhetorical resources. Although we are faced with a document that allows freedom, there are common criteria.
Fundamental characteristics of the trial
No matter how free and particular the work is, among the characteristics of the essay we will find the argumentative expository character. Most examples belong to texts that try to convince the reader of a point of view. To achieve this, it is necessary to argue each of the opinions expressed. Now, in the academic field we can find clearly expository essays. In these cases, the intention is to describe, classify or define a topic. For this reason, they are common in educational institutes as an evaluation tool.
Another feature linked to the previous one is the purpose of the trial. As has been said, an essay is an excellent tool to convince readers about an issue. Thanks to the flexibility it allows, any event can become a test topic. Thus the use of rhetoric is a characteristic element in the most convincing essays. We can recognize these essential characteristics of the essay in every successful essay text.
The type of structure and the use of logic
As part of the didactic literature, in the characteristics of the essay we find the use of a clear structure as well as the use of logic. Regarding the first aspect, we must bear in mind that the basic structure of the essay is as follows. In general terms, an introduction, a development and a conclusion are used. This is the superstructure of the formal test or arrangement. Without going too deep, we will say that within each section we will find other sections. The use of a correct scheme allows the resulting work to be coherent and have a thematic unit. It is said that when this is accomplished, no part of the text can be deleted.
Another feature of the essay is the use of logic. As in other academic works, I could opt for a deductive composition. If this happens, then the general theme is presented and then the particularities are discussed. In the opposite case, when it is an inductive composition, the particularities are retaken. Through them the author gets a general conclusion.
Global sense, clarity and cohesion as characteristics of the essay
The following characteristics of the essay are closely related to the previous concepts. Thus, the overall meaning of the work is only achieved when each part of the essay contributes something to the whole. In this sense, when analyzing each of the paragraphs we will notice that the proposed sections are complete. Here we can make a comparison with the works of art: each part of the painting fits harmoniously. Removing one of them destroys the painting. In the essay, the sense is lost.
At a lower level, we have the microstructure of the assay. On this point we will say that it is about the internal structure of the sections. The paragraph is that fragment of the text that develops an idea, which amounts to being a micro text. Therefore, each paragraph must be clear and coherent. Through this, the essay will have clarity and coherence both at a general level and in each part. Such characteristics of the essay are typical of professional works.
Other characteristics of the essay: style and language
We could consider that the style and language used are not very important characteristics of the essay. However, outstanding trials make correct use of these. It is usually resorted to the use of rhetoric as a stylistic and persuasive resource. In fact, the best way to convince is to use rhetorical devices such as metaphors, comparisons, and so on. Of course, the essay is not the exception. As the writer uses a rhetorical figure properly, we will notice that his ideas gain strength and are effective.
The last of the features of the essay we will study is the use of language. In an essay it is not written as it is spoken, the writers choose a formal tone. This feature is called language registration. So when such property is not present, the work is poor in style. As an additional observation, the academic essay usually speaks impersonally or in plural. However, it is valid to incorporate some experience or anecdote in the first person in the introduction.
What you should not forget about the essay
After exposing the characteristics of the essay we can synthesize them so as not to forget the most relevant. First of all, the main feature of the essay is the argumentative expository character. If there is no opinion expressed or their respective arguments, it can not be considered an essay. Next, we must take into account the use of logic. In the essay there is a coherent and orderly outline. Likewise, it is usual to resort to a formal and impersonal tone in the writing. Finally, the use of rhetoric is common because it gives strength to ideas.